EC-MS Resources


user manual

Application and technical notes



Data analysis code

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Application & technical notes

Technical note #1 

Gas Pulses 

Technical note #2 

Benchmark Measurement 

Technical note #3 

Potentiostat instability 

Technical note #4


Technical note #5

Tuning of the QMS 

Technical note #6 

Air-free transfer from glovebox 

Technical note #7 

Soft ionization 

Data analysis code

We recommend the Spectro Inlets co-developed open-source package ixdat for data analysis. The ixdat package features easy data access and power plotting and analysis tools for combined techniques, such as ECMS. ixdat will get you up to speed on your ECMS data treatment in no time. The documentation for the package can be found here:

Below is an example of how we use the package for the treatment of EC-MS data to generate the figures in our application notes:


Sedano Varo, E., Egeberg Tankard, R., Kryger-Baggesen, J., Jinschek, J., Helveg, S., Chorkendorff, I., Danvad Damsgaard, C., Kibsgaard, J. (2024). Gold Nanoparticles for CO2 Electroreduction: An Optimum Defined by Size and Shape. Journal of the American Chemical Society. doi:10.1021/jacs.3c10610

Roy, K., Rana, A., Heil, J. N., Tackett, B. M., & Dick, J. E. (2024). For Zinc Metal Batteries, How Many Electrons go to Hydrogen Evolution? An Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry Study. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, e202319010. doi:10.1002/anie.202319010

Thornton, D. B., Davies, B. J. V., Scott, S. B., Aguadero, A., Ryan, M. P., Stephens, Angew, I. E. L. (2023). Chem. Int. Ed, e202315357.

Tort, R., Bagger, A., Westhead, O., Kondo, Y., Khobnya, A., Winiwarter, A., … Stephens, I. E. L. (2023). Searching for the Rules of Electrochemical Nitrogen Fixation. ACS Catalysis, 13(22), 14513–14522. doi:10.1021/acscatal.3c03951

Lucky, C., Fuller, L., & Schreier, M. (2023). Determining the potential-dependent identity of methane adsorbates at Pt electrodes using EC-MS. Catal. Sci. Technol. doi:10.1039/D3CY01172K

Luka Pavko, Matija Gatalo, Tina Đukić, Francisco Ruiz-Zepeda, Angelja Kjara Surca, Martin Šala, Nik Maselj, Primož Jovanovič, Marjan Bele, Matjaž Finšgar, Boštjan Genorio, Nejc Hodnik, & Miran Gaberšček (2023). Correlating oxygen functionalities and electrochemical durability of carbon supports for electrocatalysts. Carbon, 118458.

Zhang, H., Gao, J., Raciti, D. et al. Promoting Cu-catalysed CO2 electroreduction to multicarbon products by tuning the activity of H2O. Nat Catal (2023).

Bakshi, H. B., Lucky, C., Chen, H.-S., & Schreier, M. (2023). Electrocatalytic Scission of Unactivated C(sp3)–C(sp3) Bonds through Real-Time Manipulation of Surface-Bound Intermediates. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 145(25), 13742–13749. doi:10.1021/jacs.3c02108

Vollenbroek, J. C., Rodriguez, A. P., Mei, B. T., Mul, G., Verhaar, M. C., Odijk, M., & Gerritsen, K. G. F. (2023). Light-driven urea oxidation for a wearable artificial kidney. In Catalysis Today (p. 114163). Elsevier BV.

Illustration of the unique EC-MS microchip-based inlet at Spectro Inlets
Ashraf, T., Rodriguez, A. P., Mei, B., & Mul, G. (2023). Electrochemical decarboxylation of acetic acid on boron-doped diamond and platinum functionalised electrodes for pyrolysis-oil treatment. Faraday Discuss. doi:10.1039/D3FD00066D


Becker, H., Murawski, J., Shinde, D. V., Stephens, I. E. L., Hinds, G., & Smith, G. (2023). Impact of impurities on water electrolysis: a review. Sustainable Energy Fuels7, 1565–1603. doi:10.1039/D2SE01517J

Maselj, N., Jovanovski, V., Ruiz-Zepeda, F., Finšgar, M., Klemenčič, T., Trputec, J., Kamšek, A. R., Bele, M., Hodnik, N., & Jovanovič, P. (2023). Time and Potential‐Resolved Comparison of Copper Disc and Copper Nanoparticles for Electrocatalytic Hydrogenation of Furfural. In Energy Technology (p. 2201467). Wiley.

Illustration of the unique EC-MS microchip-based inlet at Spectro Inlets

Đukić, T., Pavko, L., Jovanovič, P., Maselj, N., Gatalo, M., & Hodnik, N. (2022). Stability challenges of carbon-supported Pt-nanoalloys as fuel cell oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalysts. Chem. Commun.58, 13832–13854.

Raciti, D., & Moffat, T. P. (2022). Quantification of Hydride Coverage on Cu(111) by Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 

Silvioli, L., Winiwarter, A., Scott, S., Castelli, I., Moses, P., Chorkendorff, I., Seger, B., & Rossmeisl, J. (2022). Rational Catalyst Design for Higher Propene Partial Electro-oxidation Activity by Alloying Pd with Au. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 126.

Krzywda, P. M., Paradelo Rodríguez, A., Benes, N. E., Mei, B. T., & Mul, G. (2022). Carbon-Nitrogen bond formation on Cu electrodes during CO2 reduction in NO3- solution. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 121512.

Oates, R. P., Murawski, J., Hor C., Shen, X., Weber, D. J., Oezaslan, M., Shaffer, M. S. P., & Stephens, I. E. L. (2022). How to Minimise Hydrogen Evolution on Carbon Based Materials?. Journal of The Electrochemical Society,169(5), 054516.

Krempl, K., Hochfilzer, D., Cavalca, F., Saccoccio, M., Kibsgaard, J., Vesborg, P., & Chorkendorff, I. (2022). Quantitative Operando Detection of Electro Synthesized Ammonia Using Mass Spectrometry. ChemElectroChem, 9(6), e202101713.

Ma, M., Deng, W., Xu, A., Hochfilzer, D., Qiao, Y., Chan, K., Chorkendorff, I., & Seger, B. (2022). Local reaction environment for selective electroreduction of carbon monoxide. Energy Environ. Sci., 15, 2470-2478. doi:10.1039/D1EE03838A 

Hochfilzer, Degenhart; Xu, Aoni; Sørensen, Jakob Ejler; Needham, Julius Lucas; Krempl, Kevin; Toudahl, Karl Krøjer; et al. (2022). Transients in Electrochemical CO Reduction Explained by Mass Transport of Buffers. ACS Publications. Collection.

Krzywda, P. M., Paradelo Rodríguez, A., Cino, L., Benes, N. E., Mei, B. T., & Mul, G. (2022). Electroreduction of NO3− on tubular porous Ti electrodes. Catal. Sci. Technol. 

Scott, S. B., Sørensen, J. E., Rao, R. R., Moon, C., Kibsgaard, J., Shao-Horn, Y., & Chorkendorff, I. (2022). The low overpotential regime of acidic water oxidation part II: trends in metal and oxygen stability numbers. Energy Environ. Sci. 

Scott, S. B., Rao, R., Moon, C., Sørensen, J. E., Kibsgaard, J., Shao-Horn, Y., & Chorkendorff, I. (2022). The low overpotential regime of acidic water oxidation part I: The importance of O2 detection. Energy Environ. Sci. 

Tackett, B. M., Raciti, D., Hight Walker, A. R., & Moffat, T. P. (2021). Surface Hydride Formation on Cu(111) and Its Decomposition to Form H2 in Acid Electrolytes. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters12(44), 10936–10941.

Zheng, Y.-R., Vernieres, J., Wang, Z., Zhang, K., Hochfilzer, D., Krempl, K., Liao, T.-W., Presel, F., Altantzis, T., Fatermans, J., Scott, S. B., Secher, N. M., Moon, C., Liu, P., Bals, S., van Aert, S., Cao, A., Anand, M., Nørskov, J. K., Kibsgaard, J., Chorkendorff, I. (2021). Monitoring oxygen production on mass-selected iridium–tantalum oxide electrocatalysts. Nature Energy

Moriau, L. J., Hrnjić, A., Pavlišič, A., Kamšek, A. R., Petek, U., Ruiz-Zepeda, F., Šala, M., Pavko, L., Šelih, V. S., Bele, M., Jovanovič, P., Gatalo, M., & Hodnik, N. (2021). Resolving the nanoparticles’ structure-property relationships at the atomic level: a study of Pt-based electrocatalysts. In iScience (Vol. 24, Issue 2, p. 102102). Elsevier BV.

Huang, J., Scott, S. B., Chorkendorff, I., & Wen, Z. (2021). Online Electrochemistry–Mass Spectrometry Evaluation of the Acidic Oxygen Evolution Reaction at Supported Catalysts. ACS Catalysis11(20), 12745–12753.

Krzywda, P. M., Paradelo Rodriguez, A., Benes, N. E., Mei, B., & Mul, G. (2021). Effect of electrolyte and electrode configuration on Cu‐catalyzed nitric oxide reduction to ammonia. ChemElectroChem

Smiljanić, M., Petek, U., Bele, M., Ruiz-Zepeda, F., Šala, M., Jovanovič, P., Gaberšček, M., & Hodnik, N. (2021). Electrochemical Stability and Degradation Mechanisms of Commercial Carbon-Supported Gold Nanoparticles in Acidic Media. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C125(1).
Stumm, C., Kastenmeier, M., Waidhas, F., Bertram, M., Sandbeck, D. J. S., Bochmann, S., Mayrhofer, K. J. J., Bachmann, J., Cherevko, S., Brummel, O., & Libuda, J. (2021). Model electrocatalysts for the oxidation of rechargeable electrofuels – carbon supported Pt nanoparticles prepared in UHV. Electrochimica Acta389
Tanumihardja, E., Paradelo Rodríguez, A., Loessberg-Zahl, J. T., Mei, B., Olthuis, W., & van den Berg, A. (2021). On-chip electrocatalytic NO sensing using ruthenium oxide nanorods. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical334
Moriau, L., Koderman Podboršek, G., Surca, A. K., Semsari Parpari, S., Šala, M., Petek, U., Bele, M., Jovanovič, P., Genorio, B., & Hodnik, N. (2021). Enhancing Iridium Nanoparticles’ Oxygen Evolution Reaction Activity and Stability by Adjusting the Coverage of Titanium Oxynitride Flakes on Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanoribbons’ Support. Advanced Materials Interfaces8(17).

Hochfilzer, D., Sørensen, J. E., Clark, E. L., Scott, S. B., Chorkendorff, I., & Kibsgaard, J. (2021). The Importance of Potential Control for Accurate Studies of Electrochemical CO Reduction. ACS Energy Letters6(5).

Krempl, K., Hochfilzer, D., Scott, S. B., Kibsgaard, J., Vesborg, P. C. K., Hansen, O., & Chorkendorff, I. (2021). Dynamic Interfacial Reaction Rates from Electrochemistry–Mass Spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry93(18).
Scott, S. B., Kibsgaard, J., Vesborg, P. C. K., & Chorkendorff, I. (2021). Tracking oxygen atoms in electrochemical CO oxidation – Part II: Lattice oxygen reactivity in oxides of Pt and Ir. Electrochimica Acta374
Scott, S. B., Kibsgaard, J., Vesborg, P. C. K., & Chorkendorff, I. (2021). Tracking oxygen atoms in electrochemical CO oxidation – Part I: Oxygen exchange via CO2 hydration. Electrochimica Acta374, 137842.

Winiwarter, A., Boyd, M. J., Scott, S. B., Higgins, D. C., Seger, B., Chorkendorff, I., & Jaramillo, T. F. (2021). CO as a Probe Molecule to Study Surface Adsorbates during Electrochemical Oxidation of Propene. ChemElectroChem8(1).


Scott, S. B., Engstfeld, A. K., Jusys, Z., Hochfilzer, D., Knøsgaard, N., Trimarco, D. B., Vesborg, P. C. K., Behm, R. J., & Chorkendorff, I. (2020). Anodic molecular hydrogen formation on Ru and Cu electrodes. Catalysis Science & Technology10(20).

Winiwarter, A., Silvioli, L., Scott, S. B., Enemark-Rasmussen, K., Sariç, M., Trimarco, D. B., Vesborg, P. C. K., Moses, P. G., Stephens, I. E. L., Seger, B., Rossmeisl, J., & Chorkendorff, I. (2019). Towards an atomistic understanding of electrocatalytic partial hydrocarbon oxidation: propene on palladium. Energy & Environmental Science12(3).
Roy, C., Sebok, B., Scott, S. B., Fiordaliso, E. M., Sørensen, J. E., Bodin, A., Trimarco, D. B., Damsgaard, C. D., Vesborg, P. C. K., Hansen, O., Stephens, I. E. L., Kibsgaard, J., & Chorkendorff, I. (2018). Impact of nanoparticle size and lattice oxygen on water oxidation on NiFeOxHy. Nature Catalysis1(11).
Trimarco, D. B., Scott, S. B., Thilsted, A. H., Pan, J. Y., Pedersen, T., Hansen, O., Chorkendorff, I., & Vesborg, P. C. K. (2018). Enabling real-time detection of electrochemical desorption phenomena with sub-monolayer sensitivity. Electrochimica Acta268
D. B. Trimarco, (2017). Real-time detection of sub-monolayer desorption phenomena during electrochemical reactions: Instrument development and applications. PhD thesis, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark.
D. B. Trimarco, P. C. K. Vesborg, T. Pedersen, O. Hansen, I. Chorkendorff, (2016), patent,A device for extracting volatile species from a liquid.
Trimarco, D. B., Pedersen, T., Hansen, O., Chorkendorff, I., & Vesborg, P. C. K. (2015). Fast and sensitive method for detecting volatile species in liquids. Review of Scientific Instruments86(7).

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